General Information
    • ISSN: 1793-8201 (Print), 2972-4511 (Online)
    • Abbreviated Title: Int. J. Comput. Theory Eng.
    • Frequency: Quarterly
    • DOI: 10.7763/IJCTE
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Mehmet Sahinoglu
    • Associate Editor-in-Chief: Assoc. Prof. Alberto Arteta, Assoc. Prof. Engin Maşazade
    • Executive Editor: Ms. Mia Hu
    • Abstracting/Indexing: Scopus (Since 2022), INSPEC (IET), CNKI,  Google Scholar, EBSCO, etc.
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Prof. Mehmet Sahinoglu
Computer Science Department, Troy University, USA
I'm happy to take on the position of editor in chief of IJCTE. We encourage authors to submit papers concerning any branch of computer theory and engineering.

IJCTE 2022 Vol.14(3): 89-96 ISSN: 1793-8201
DOI: 10.7763/IJCTE.2022.V14.1315

Robust Imperceptible Gray Image Watermarking with LWT, SVD and QR Decomposition

Sushama Agrawal and Anjali Bhalchandra

Abstract—This work suggests a unique watermarking technique based on QR decomposition and singular value decomposition (SVD) in the lifting wavelet transform (LWT) domain. It's a hybrid watermarking method working on LWT's energy compaction property with a combination of QR and SVD to enhance watermarking performance. The image is decomposed with three levels of LWT, then QR factorization on CH3 subband and finally SVD is applied to R matrix. Watermark is scrambled using Arnold transform (AT) to improve security aspect. Singular values are modified with scaling factor and watermark bit. Robustness and imperceptibility are important parameters in image watermarking. Proposed technique combats trade-off between robustness and imperceptibility for varying watermark embedding strength. It also withstands attacks like image processing, noising, filtering, compression, geometric. Performance is evaluated with PSNR, SSIM, BER and NCC.

Index Terms—Imperceptibility, lifting wavelet transform, QR decomposition, robustness, SVD.

Sushama Agrawal and Anjali Bhalchandra are with the Electronics department, Government College of Engineering, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India (e-mail:,


Cite:Sushama Agrawal and Anjali Bhalchandra, "Robust Imperceptible Gray Image Watermarking with LWT, SVD and QR Decomposition," International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 89-96, 2022.

Copyright © 2022 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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